Special thanks for the foto to Rudolf Svensen, Danmark.
Northeast Atlantic: North Sea and adjacent waters as far north as the Lofoten Area and the west of the British Isles, and Baltic Sea south to Morocco; also in northern Mediterranean (Gulf of Lion and the Adriatic Sea) and Black Sea.
Usually inshore schooling, sometimes entering estuaries (especially the juveniles) and tolerating salinities as low as 4 ppt. Shows strong migrations between winter feeding and summer spawning grounds.
Moves to the surface at night. Feeds on planktonic crustaceans.
Spawns at depths of 10-20 m producing 6,000-14,000 pelagic eggs.
Some spawn almost throughout the year, mainly in spring and summer, near the coast or up to 100 km out to sea, the young drifting inshore.
Clupanodon phalerica Risso, 1827
Clupea latulus Cuvier, 1829
Clupea papalina Bonaparte, 1846
Clupea schoneveldii Krøyer, 1846
Clupea sprattus Linnaeus, 1758 (basionym)
Clupea sulinae Antipa, 1904
Meletta vulgaris Valenciennes, 1847
Spratella pumila Valenciennes, 1847
Spratella serdinka Nikolskii, 1923
Sprattus sprattus phalerica (Risso, 1827)
Sprattus sprattus phalericus (Risso, 1827)
Spratus spratus (Linnaeus, 1758) (misspelling).
Reports of ciguatera poisoning